Friday, February 19, 2010

On The Other Hand....

The antidote to the dual-enrollment scam in the Lone Star State is on the horizon. Full disclosure: in his last years at the Collegium Excellens, this blogger encountered a home-bound rising senior at one of the local high schools. She was enrolled, under the dual-enrollment arrangement, in a televised course (because she was home-bound). The essays that this young woman (with a physical condition akin to that of Stephen Hawking) wrote, under the supervision of a proctor/question-reader, were breath-taking and rank among the best work encountered by this geezer/professor in more than 3 decades at the Collegium. The latest initiative in edcuational reform has merit. If this is a (fair & balanced) wistful desire for cream to rise to the top, so be it.

[x NY Fishwrap]
High Schools To Offer Plan To Graduate 2 Years Early
By Sam Dillon

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Dozens of public high schools in eight states will introduce a program next year allowing 10th graders who pass a battery of tests to get a diploma two years early and immediately enroll in community college.

Students who pass but aspire to attend a selective college may continue with college preparatory courses in their junior and senior years, organizers of the new effort said. Students who fail the 10th-grade tests, known as board exams, can try again at the end of their 11th and 12th grades. The tests would cover not only English and math but also subjects like science and history.

The new system of high school coursework with the accompanying board examinations is modeled largely on systems in high-performing nations including Denmark, England, Finland, France and Singapore.

The program is being organized by the National Center on Education and the Economy, and its goals include insuring that students have mastered a set of basic requirements and reducing the numbers of high school graduates who need remedial courses when they enroll in college. More than a million college freshmen across America must take remedial courses each year, and many drop out before getting a degree.

“That’s a central problem we’re trying to address, the enormous failure rate of these kids when they go to the open admission colleges,” said Marc S. Tucker, president of the center, a Washington-based nonprofit. “We’ve looked at schools all over the world, and if you walk into a high school in the countries that use these board exams, you’ll see kids working hard, whether they want to be a carpenter or a brain surgeon.”

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has provided a $1.5 million planning grant to help the national center work with states and districts to get the program running, Mr. Tucker said. He estimated that start-up costs for school districts would be about $500 a student, to buy courses and tests and to train teachers.

To defray those costs, the eight states intend to apply for some of the $350 million in federal stimulus money designated for improving public school testing, Mr. Tucker said.

High school students will begin the new coursework in the fall of 2011 in Connecticut, Kentucky, Maine, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. The education commissioners of those states have pledged to sign up 10 to 20 schools each for the pilot project, and have begun to reach out to district superintendents.

The project’s backers hope it will eventually spread to all schools in those states, and inspire other states to follow suit. Supporters include the National Association of Manufacturers and the National Education Association, the nation’s largest teachers’ union.

Kentucky’s commissioner of education, Terry Holliday, said high school graduation requirements there had long been based on having students accumulate enough course credits to graduate.

“This would reform that,” Dr. Holliday said. “We’ve been tied to seat time for 100 years. This would allow an approach based on subject mastery — a system based around move-on-when-ready.”

The new system aims to provide students with a clear outline of what they need to study to succeed, said Phil Daro, a consultant based in Berkeley, CA, who is a member of an advisory committee for the effort.

School systems like Singapore’s promise students that if they diligently study the material in their course syllabuses, they will do well on their examinations, Mr. Daro said. “In the U.S., by contrast, all is murky,” he said. “Students do not have a clear idea of where to apply their effort, and the system makes no coherent attempt to reward learning.”

Its backers say the new system would reduce the need for community colleges to offer remedial courses because the passing score for the 10th-grade tests would be set at the level necessary to succeed in first-year college courses. Failure would provide 10th graders with an early warning system about the knowledge and skills they need to master in high school before seeking to enroll in college.

Currently, many high school graduates enrolling in community colleges are stunned to find that they cannot pass the math and English exams those colleges use to determine who need remediation.

Four years ago, a bipartisan panel of national education and other policy experts, assembled by the national center, recommended a far-reaching redesign of the American educational system, including the adoption of board examinations in high schools.

Other recommendations of the 2006 panel included giving states, rather than local districts, control over school financing, and starting school for most children at age 3. Mr. Tucker said the board examination project was the broadest effort at putting the panel’s proposals into effect so far.

“One hope is that this board exam system can prepare students to move on to careers, to higher ed and technical colleges and the workplace, sooner rather than later,” said Howard T. Everson, a professor of educational psychology at the City University of New York, who is co-chairman of the advisory committee.

In that respect, the effort is similar to the growing early college high school movement, in which students begin taking college-level courses while they are still in high school and earning college credit through nearby community colleges.

States that participate in the pilot project on board examinations will pick up to five programs of instruction, with their accompanying tests, for use by the participating high schools. Those programs already approved by the national center include the College Board’s Advanced Placement, the International Baccalaureate Diploma, ACT’s QualityCore and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education programs offered both by Cambridge International and by Edexcel, part of Pearson Education. Ω

[Sam Dillon was the co-winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 1998 (with Julia Preston) for their coverage of Mexico's narcotics underworld. Now, Dillon is a National Correspondent for the Times with special emphasis on education.]

Copyright © 2010 The New York Times Company

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Almost College For EVERYONE!

Late in the 1990s, the Collegium Excellens — known locally as AC, which an unknown wag said stood for "Almost College" — was at the forefront of the Dual-Credit Movement among Texas 2-year colleges (jucos, as this blogger prefers) and their neighboring public school districts. The jucos got to claim the dual-students in their enrollment reports for State-reimbursement and the public schools got the cachet of offering college-credit courses to their juniors and seniors. The parents of the students loved the arrangement because their Billy or Susie were getting entry-level college credit that would enable the folks to evade tuition payment for the same courses at the 4-year institution of choice. Win-win for everyone? The Texas Lege is growing nervous because dual-credit courses have growed like Topsy. Should the State of Texas pay double to both the high schools and the jucos for the enrollment of the same students? Are the dual-credit courses (taught by high school teachers) really college-level courses? For answers to these and other burning questions, stay tuned. If this is (fair & balanced) suspense, so be it.

[x TX Tribune]
The Old College Try
By Brian Thevenot

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Alex Duran, a senior at Crockett High School in Austin, has already become the first in his family to attend college — before ever graduating from high school. When he attends either St. Edwards University or Texas A&M next year, he’ll already have knocked out 18 credit hours of college classes that counted toward his high school graduation, too.

Duran is among hundreds at Crockett who attend classes next door at Austin Community College and tens of thousands across Texas who are enrolled in an ever-increasing number of "dual-credit" classes. Since the state first started tracking enrollment in 1999, the number of dual-credit students across Texas has ballooned from fewer than 12,000 to more than 91,000 — larger than the entire Austin school district. This blending of high school and college is likely to continue as state and local policy makers search for ways to better align curricula and to push more students to continue their education. For now, the classes, largely collaborations between high schools and their local community colleges, play out to the three-fold benefit of students: They get to sample the college environment; they earn both high school and college credit for one course; and most often they get to do it for free.

When the program started, it was largely the province of white and gifted students seeking accelerated curriculum. But the classes now draw a much broader cross-section in terms of both race and academic ability. In 1999, enrollees were 71 percent Anglo and just 22 percent Hispanic. By 2009, that balance had shifted to 48 percent Anglo and 39 percent Hispanic. “Schools have started to look at it as great for kids who might not have thought they were college material,” said James Goeman, a senior education specialist at the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. “It’s both a gifted-and-talented program and a college accessibility program.”

At Crockett, where the racial make-up of the student body closely mirrors Austin's, and where about half of the 1,750 students are low-income, principal Craig Shapiro wants to expand the program for those and other reasons. “I think we could easily have 500 students in the not-too-distant future walking off this campus at graduation with college credits,” he said. “It gives students what I call ‘strength of schedule.’ If two students are applying for the same scholarship with the same grades, the colleges are going to look at what differentiates you. … And it’s not just for the kids who have four-year college written all over them.”

Questions about effectiveness, financing

Dual-credit programs have flourished largely under the radar, with little coordination or study at the state level to determine their long-term effectiveness. The arrangements are controlled at the local level, in scores of negotiated agreements largely between community colleges and school districts. While enrollment has skyrocketed, no data exists on the percentage of students who complete the classes, or whether their fast-start makes it any more likely they will go on to earn college degrees. That will soon change, with the expected release soon of a Coordinating Board report detailing the percentages of dual-credit students who went on to college and whether they graduated within six years. But that data necessarily will focus on students who started the classes years ago, when dual-credit was much less common than today. And comparisons of dual-credit students to college students at large are complicated by the fact that dual-credit students are a self-selected population of what researchers assume are more capable and motivated high-school students, said Julie Ecklund, the Coordinating Board researcher compiling that data.

Meanwhile, the state Legislature has requested a report on the costs of dual-credit. State Rep. Scott Hochberg, D-Houston, and other state policy makers, including Commissioner of Education Robert Scott, have raised concerns that the state may be double-paying for the classes in financing both the high schools and colleges involved. When a student at Crockett walks across the street to the ACC campus, for instance, the state finances its share of that college class as it would any other, while the high school still counts the student in daily attendance counts that determine its share of state money. Concerns among legislators emerged when they realized just how large the dual-credit program had grown, and some were irked at reports that some colleges also charged tuition, either to students or their high schools. The coordinating board just recently contracted with the Texas A&M Educational Research Center to conduct that study.

In addition to the cost, the effectiveness of such programs demands scrutiny, Hochberg said. “It’s a good idea, but anecdotally there’s been uneven implementation. There’s some really bad examples and some really good ones, and we’ve got no particular metrics to measure it,” Hochberg said.

Unlike Advanced Placement courses also common on high school campuses, there’s no test at the end of the class required for students to earn the college credit, Hochberg pointed out. And the dual-credit courses can be taught either on college or high school campuses. It’s not known at the state level the prevalence of each, but the high school-based classes in particular have drawn suspicions about their rigor. “There have been a lot of allegations that they aren’t really college-level courses,” Hochberg said.

Growing up early

Goeman, of the Coordinating Board, understands the skepticism and agrees the programs warrant more quality control. But he sees their proliferation as a healthy challenge to the traditionally inflexible nature of the high school model. “If something sounds too good, you start to question it,” he said. “We’re not used to the idea that 16- and 17-year-olds can enroll in college courses and do really well. At the same time, it’s really arbitrary to assume that the difference between 16-year-olds and 18-year-olds is so great that they can’t possibly handle the same work. It’s not necessarily true.”

Indeed, in a related trend, the proliferation of early college high schools across Texas has produced a new class of high-achieving high schoolers earning up to two years worth college credits before ever setting foot on a college campus.

At Crockett, Shapiro offers his students classes both on his campus and the ACC campus nearby, but he much prefers to send them across the street. “The atmosphere is just as important as the teacher,” he said. “They’re sitting in classes with adults.”

It’s an atmosphere many of the dual-credit students at Crockett prefer — one devoid of the somewhat necessary hand-holding and busy-work of high school that can annoy and bore stronger students. “You sit for a lecture, and as a learner, I prefer that over sitting there doing worksheets,” Duran said. “In high school, you have a lot of assignments I don’t like but you have to do to get the grade. In college, it’s four exams and a paper. You have a lot more freedom — and responsibility.”

After high school

Though the dual-credit market is dominated by community colleges, four-year universities are seeing dual-credit students in much larger numbers as they enter college. At the University of Texas in Austin, more than half of the students come to the campus with dual-credit classes under their belt, not including those who come with credits from other programs, including Advanced Placement classes, said Kedra Ishop, UT-Austin's Vice Provost and director of admissions.

The university generally supports the trend, believeing community colleges are in many ways better positioned in the local community to offer the classes to nearby high schools. UT recently formed a committee to address the college-readiness of students transferring in, including those from high schools with dual credits under their belts. Already UT makes sure college advisors consult with students arriving with dual credit, to gauge their readiness to make the jump into junior and senior level courses. “As these programs are expanding, students are starting dual credit much earlier in their high school careers. Many are coming with just two or three classes, but others come with 45 credit hours,” Ishop said. “Then they meet physics — and that’s the challenge.”

At ACC, the dual-credit programs represent both a recruiting opportunity and a chance to give students a jump-start toward successful completion of a credential, whether it’s a two-year degree there or a four-year degree later from another institution. The college’s research shows students who get through a few basic courses are far more likely to graduate. “We’re trying to help more students understand that they can be college material,” said Luanne Preston, ACC’s executive director for school relations. “And we find that about 40 percent who take the dual-credit classes return to us after high school. The credits also transfer seamless to other institutions within the state and widely to public and private colleges out of state.”

The number of students taking dual credit at ACC now numbers more than 3,600 and likely will continue growing, ACC officials said. The school waives tuition for students in its taxing district, and charges only a nominal fee for students outside the district. For Crockett students, the school district pays for their textbooks as well, making the classes completely free to students.

And in this economy — as tuition continues to soar — that’s no small favor to many students. “Even for families that can afford college, going in with credits can be the difference between taking 12 or 15 hours per semester, and can raise their GPAs,” said Shapiro, the Crockett principal. “For many of our lower and lower-middle class students, it can be the difference between college or not, or having to take loans or not.” Ω

[Brian Thevenot spent a dozen years at The Times-Picayune of New Orleans, most recently as special projects editor. As part of a team that covered the worst of Hurricane Katrina's aftermath, Thevenot contributed multiple bylines to two winning entries for Pulitzer Prizes, in breaking news and public service. His Katrina reporting also won the Mongerson Prize for Investigative Reporting on the News, from Northwestern University, and the Medal of Valor from the National Association of Minority Media Executives. Thevenot has a degree in journalism from The University of Missouri-Columbia.]

Copyright © 2010 The Texas Tribune

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