Sunday, May 16, 2010

A Thin Red Line In A Blue Book

This blogger, when he labored in the groves of academe (using the term loosely) at the Collegium Excellens, taught five or more classes each term. Early on, this blogger recognized the nightmare of class papers becoming intermingled and confused. In a stroke of brilliant course-management, he color-coded his classes. The 8:00 AM MWF class was color-coded green. All class papers (the syllabus, critique forms, test reports/progress reports to individual students, and the like) were printed on green-tint paper. Teacher comments on student papers were written in green ink for that class. And so it went for the blue class at 8:00 AM TT and the purple class at 9:00 AM MWF, and so on. One class each term was the red class with pink-tinted paper and red ink. Unwittingly, this blogger condemned the red classes each term to doom. According to the latest pedagogical research, red reeks. O well, what's done is done. Belated apologies to all of the red classes who enjoyed this blogger's tender mercies. In a final aside about ink-color, all student papers submitted in the Collegium's Department of English during this blogger's time were marked up in green ink. Nary a red pen in that nattering crowd of English profs. Unfortunately, the author of this marking-policy — a long-time chair of the department — was long-gone by the time this blogger arrived. The green ink was never explained, but the green ink remained for all of those miserable Freshman Composition classes. If this is (fair & balanced) hexachrome, so be it.

[x Miller-McCune]
When Grading Papers, Red Ink May Mean Lower Scores
By Tom Jacobs

Tag Cloud of the following article

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Remember those gut-wrenching high-school moments when a teacher handed you back a test or assignment, having corrected your mistakes and rendered a harsh verdict in bold red ink? It may be small consolation now, but newly published research suggests your grades may have been higher if that ink had been blue.

A study in the European Journal of Social Psychology suggests the use of red pens may make teachers more likely to spot errors on tests and to be more critical when grading essays. “Despite teachers’ efforts to free themselves from extraneous influences while grading,” write California State University Northridge psychologist Abraham Rutchick, Tufts University psychologist Michael Slepian and Bennett Ferris of Phillips Exeter Academy, “the very act of picking up a red pen can bias their evaluations.”

The paper describes three experiments testing the proposition that red pens trigger teachers’ brains to focus on failure. The researchers note that red pens “have long been associated with errors,” adding that many previous studies have found physical objects in one’s immediate environment can influence behavior. (An earlier Ratchick study found voters whose polling places are in churches are more likely to support candidates and causes supported by the religious right.)

In one of the experiments, 103 volunteers read a two-paragraph excerpt from an essay. They were told it was written by a student who was learning English and instructed to mark any errors in punctuation, spelling, grammar or word choice.

Half used a red pen for the assignment, while the others used a blue pen. Those using red ink spotted significantly more errors than those using blue ink.

In another experiment, 129 students were instructed to evaluate a one-page essay ostensibly written by an eighth-grade student. The paper contained no grammatical or spelling errors, but the language was at a somewhat rudimentary level. Participants were instructed to point out words or phrases that could be improved and then grade the essay on a scale of 0 to 100.

Once again, half used a red pen and half used a blue one. Those marking the paper in red ink gave the essay lower grades than their counterparts using blue ink.

Rutchick and his colleagues argue this demonstrates “using red pens increases the cognitive accessibility of failure-relevant concepts.” However, they concede that other factors could be at work. Being associated with aggression, the color red could conceivably increase graders’ testosterone level, making them more assertive and critical.

They also note that the test participants were not trained teachers. Nevertheless, they conclude that “it seems sensible to avoid presenting students’ work covered in a color automatically associated with failure and negativity.” (The Boston Globe reported some school districts are switching to purple ink for that very reason.)

“Red pens, ubiquitous in academic settings, are not inert objects,” they add. “They are laden with meaning.” Perhaps the phrase “the power of the pen” needs to be taken more literally. Ω

[Tom Jacobs is a veteran journalist with more than 20 years experience at daily newspapers. He has served as a staff writer for The Los Angeles Daily News and the Santa Barbara News-Press. His work has also appeared in The Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, and Ventura County Star.]

Copyright © 2010 Miller-McCune Magazine

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The Ghost Of Earl Warren

Before there was St. Dutch — the Dumbo fount of all Dumbo wisdom — there was Ike. Yesterday, the Great Commager taught us that President Dwight Eisenhower mightily regretted his 1953 appointment of Governor Earl Warren (R-CA) as Chief Justice of the United States of America. A year later, the "Warren Court" deposited Brown v. Board of Education (1954) as a partial repayment for centuries of injustice in this land. Ike resented (non-judge) Earl Warren and his leadership of the Court and Ike's response was to pronounce the backlash in the form of the "Nobody should be a Supreme Court Justice who hasn't been a judge" mantra that the Dumbos of 2010 will fling at Justice-designate Elena Kagan.

Truth be known, 36% of the men appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States had no prior experience as judges at any level (of the 40 non-judges, 10 were appointed Chief Justice of the United States of America and 30 were named Associate Justices). Here is a list of the incompetent wretches:

Chief Justices—Term—President Making Appointment—Prior Position
John Jay—(1789-1798)—Washington—Ambassador
John Marshall—(1801-1835)—Adams—Secretary of State
Roger Taney—(1836-1864)—Jackson—Secretary of the Treasury
Salmon Chase—(1864-1873)—Lincoln—Secretary of the Treasury
Morrison Waite—(1873-1888)—Grant—Pres., OH Con. Convention
Melville Fuller—(1888-1910)—Cleveland—Lawyer
Charles Hughes—(1930-1941)—Hoover—US delegate, The Hague
Harlan Stone—(1941-1946)—Roosevelt, F—Associate Justice, SCOTUS*
Earl Warren—(1953-1969)—Eisenhower—Governor, California
William H. Rehnquist—(1986-2005)—Reagan—Associate Justice, SCOTUS**

Associate Justices
James Wilson—(1789-1798)—Washington—Member, Continental Congress
Bushrod Washington—(1799-1829)—Adams—Lawyer
Joseph Story—(1812-1845)—Madison—Speaker, MA Lower House
Henry Baldwin—(1830-1844)—Jackson—Lawyer
John McKinley—(1838-1852)—Van Buren—House of Representatives
Benjamin Curtis—(1851-1857)—Fillmore—MA State Legislature
John Campbell—(1853-1861)—Pierce—Lawyer
Nathan Clifford—(1858-1881)—Buchanan—Lawyer
Noah Swayne—(1862-1881)—Lincoln—Lawyer
Samuel Miller—(1862-1890)—Lincoln—Lawyer
Joseph Bradley—(1870-1892)—Grant—Lawyer
Lucius Lamar—(1888-1893)—Cleveland—Secretary of the Interior
George Shiras, Jr.—(1892-1903)—Harrison—Lawyer
William Henry Moody—(1906-1910)—Roosevelt, T—US Attorney General
James McReynolds—(1914-1941)—Wilson—US Attorney General
Louis Brandeis—(1916-1939)—Wilson—Lawyer
George Sutherland—(1922-1938)—Harding—US Consul at The Hague
Pierce Butler—(1923-1939)—Harding—Regent, University of Minnesota
[*Harlan Stone—(1925-1941)—Coolidge—US Attorney General]
Owen Roberts—(1930-1945—Hoover—Special US Attorney
Stanley Forman Reed—(1938-1945)—Roosevelt, F—Solicitor General
Felix Frankfurter—(1939-1962)—Roosevelt, F—Law Professor, Harvard
William O. Douglas—(1939-1974)—Roosevelt, F—Chairman of SEC
James Francis Byrnes—(1941-1942)—Roosevelt, F—Senator
Robert H. Jackson—(1941-1954)—Roosevelt, F—US Attorney General
Harold Hitz Burton—(1945-1958)—Truman—Senator
Tom C. Clark—(1949-1967)—Truman—US Attorney General
Byron White—(1962-1993)—Kennedy—Deputy Attorney General
Arthur J. Goldberg—(1962-1965)—Kennedy—Secretary of Labor
Abe Fortas—(1965-1969)—Johnson—Lawyer
[**William H. Rehnquist—(1972-1986)—Nixon—US Asst. Attorney General]
Lewis F. Powell—(1972-1987)—Nixon—Lawyer

So, there you have it. Elena Kagan, as non-judge, has a LOT of company among the 36% (more than ⅓!) of the appointees to the SCOTUS. If this is (fair & balanced) truth to Dumbos, so be it.

[x Austin Fishwrap]
By Ben Sargent

Click on image to enlarge. Ω

[Ben Sargent was the editorial cartoonist for the Austin American-Statesman (1974- 2009). After his retirement, Sargent has contributed cartoons on occasion to The Texas Observer as well as the Austin Fishwrap. Sargent was born in Amarillo, TX, into a newspaper family. He learned the printing trade from age twelve and started working for the local daily as a proof runner at fourteen. He attended Amarillo College and received a Bachelor of Journalism degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 1970. Sargent won the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1982. He has also received awards from Women in Communications, Inc., Common Cause of Texas, and Cox Newspapers. He is the author of Texas Statehouse Blues (1980) and Big Brother Blues (1984).]

Copyright © 2010 Ben Sargent/Austin American-Statesman

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